Glossary

Here are some native Japanese recordings of words and phrases we sometimes use in aikido and are more often than not mispronounced. A huge thank you goes out to our good friend Yoshiko Serikawa for her time in recording them for us;

AIKIDO GLOSSARY – Useful Japanese words and phrases

A
aihanmi basic relation between partners: both have same foot forward (left or right), katatedori– wrist grip, right on right or left on left, also called kosadori, compare gyakuhanmi
ai gamae ate – mutual posture strike, 2nd technique of randori no kata

aikibudo– budo based on the aiki principle, earlier name for aikido
aikido– the way of harmony of spirit
aikidoka– one who does aikido
aikijutsu– name on the Daito ryu Martial art, also called aikijujutsu
Aikikai– organization and “label” for Ueshiba’s aikido
arigato – thanks
arigato gozaimasu – thanks for something going on
arigato gozaimashita – thanks for something completed
ate – hit, strike
atemi – strike to the body

B
bokken – wooden training sword
bokuto – wooden training sword
budoka – one who does any budo
bushido – the way of the warrior

C
chudan – middle, compare jodan and gedan

D
Daito ryu – aikijutsu school
deshi student
dogi – training dress, also keikogi
dojo – training hall
domo – much
domo arigato gozaimasu – thank you so much, for something going on
domo arigato gozaimashita – thank you so much, for something completed
dosa – movement
dozo – please/by all means

G
gaeshi/kaeshi – returning, reversed
gamae/kamae – guard, basic position
gedan – low, compare jodan and chudan
gedan ate – low strike, 4th technique of randori no kata
geiko/keiko – training
genki desu – I’m fine.
genki desuka – How are you?
Genryukan Aikido – The name of our Club
gokyo – fifth teaching, pronating wrist lock
Goshin ho – Self defense kata compiled by Tetsuro Nariyama
gomen nasai – excuse me
Gowaryu Aikido – The name of our Sister club in Ashford.
gyaku – reverse, opposite
gyaku gamae ate – opposite posture strike – 3rd from randori no kata
gyakuhanmi – basic relation between partners: they have opposite foot forward, compare ai hanmi

H
Hagakure – Hiding the Leaves, classic samurai book from the 18th century
hai – yes
hajime – begin
hakama – traditional wide pants, used in aikido
hanmi handachiwaza – sitting versus standing
hara – stomach, centre
hidari – left (right: migi)
hiji – elbow
hiki – pull
hiki otoshi – pulling drop – 17th randori no kata technique
hiki taoshi – pull down – 8th randori no kata technique
hineri – twist
hombu – organisation head quarters

I
ikkajo – older term for ikkyo
ikkyo – first teaching, like oshi taoshi, 6th technique of Randori no kata
irimi – entering
iriminage – inward throw, throwing technique, entering throw

J
jiyuwaza free training
jo – wooden staff, 127.5 centimeters
jodan – high, compare chudanand gedan
jujigarame/jujinage – cross throw
Juji garame nage – cross arm entanglement throw
jujutsu – the soft art

K
kaeshiwaza – counter techniques
kaitennage – rotation throw, throwing technique
kakarigeiko – light freeplay randori

kamae/gamae – guard, posture

kata – form, pre-decided movements
katana – the Japanese sword, also ken, to and tachi
katate – one-hand technique
katatedori – wrist-grip
keikogi – training dress, also dogi
ken – sword, also katana, to and tachi
kendo – The way of the sword, Japanese fencing
kihon – basics
kime – focusing
kokyu – breathing
kokyuho – breathing exercise, throwing technique
kokyunage – breath throw
kokyu ryoku – breath power
konbanwa – Good evening!
konichiwa – Good day!
Koryu no kata – 6 Tomiki kata comprising many aikijujutsu techniques
koshinage – hip throw
kotegaeshi – reversed wrist, throwing technique
kotehineri – twisted wrist, sankyo
kotemawashi – turned wrist, nikkyo
kumijo – jo-staff exercises, jo against jo
kumitachi – sword exercises, sword against sword
kuzushi – break balance

M
ma-ai – harmonious, balanced distance between training partners
mae – front, forward, compare ushiro
mae otoshi – front drop, hiji-ate, 15th from randori no kata
mae ukemi – forward fall

mate – wait
migi – right (left: hidari)
mochi – hold/grip, also called dori
mokuso – meditation, also called zazen
morotedori – grip with both hands, also called katate ryotedori
mushin – empty mind
Mushin no shin Aikido – The name of our Sister club in Folkestone.

N
Nihon/Nippon – Japan
nikkajo – older name for nikkyo
nikkyo – “second teaching”,  wrist lock also known as Kote mawashi
ninindori – two attackers, also called futaridori

O

obi – belt
ohayo gozaimasu – Good morning!
omote – front, surface, compare ura
onegae shimasu – please, asking for something
osae – press down, pinning
oshi taoshi – push down – 6th technique of randori no kata
otagai ni rei – bow to each other
otoshi – drop
oyowaza – applied techniques, modified for efficiency
randori – disorderly grabbing, free training
randori no kata – Tomiki kata comprising techniques deemed safe for competition
rei – bow
rokkyo – sixth teaching,  also known as waki gatame
ryotedori – gripping both wrists

S

sabaki – Management (tai sabaki is “whole body movement”)
samurai – to serve, Japanese warrior class
sankajo – older term for sankyo
sankyo – “third teaching”, wrist lock also known as kote hineri
seiza – correct sitting, sit on knees
sempai – one’s senior, compare kohai
sensei – teacher
Schichi hon no kuzushi – First seven balance taking techniques from the koryu dai yon.
shihan – expert example, high title for aikido teacher
shihonage – four directions throw, throwing technique
shikko – knee walking
shime – choke
shizentai – natural body posture
Shodokan – Tomiki sensei’s aikido school
shomen – front of the head/face
shomen ni rei– bow to head place of the dojo
shomenuchi – cut or blow to head
sukui nage – scoop throw. overhead throw scooping the leg or legs
sumimasen – excuse me
sumi otoshi – corner drop – 16th technique of randori no kata
suwariwaza – seated training, also called suwate

T

tachidori – defense against sword
tachiwaza – training standing up
tai no henko – body turn, also called tai no tenkan
taisabaki – Whole body movement, evasive movement in aikido
tanden – body center, often referred to as Hara (abdomen/stomach)
tandoku undo – Individual practice
tatami – mat
tegatana – hand sword, hand ridge in swordlike movements
tenkai kotehineri – turning wrist twist, 13th technique of randori no kata
tekubi – wrist
tekubi osae – pinned wrist, yonkyo
tenchinage – heaven-earth throw, throwing technique
tenkan – turn
tsuba – sword guard
tsugiashi – following step, back foot following and not passing front foot
tsuka – sword hilt
tsuki – strike, with a weapon or empty hand

U

uchideshi – student living in the dojo, compare sotodeshi
ude – arm
Ude gaeshi – arm reverse
Ude garami – arm entanglement
udekimenage – arm lock throw
ukemi – falling
Unsoku – foot movements

Y

yame – stop
yokomen – side of the head
yokomenuchi – strike to the side of the head
yonkajo – older term for yonkyo
yonkyo – fourth teaching, lower arm lock with applied pressure on the radius
Yoshinkan – Shioda sensei’s aikido school

Z
zanshin – remaining spirit, continued concentration
Zen Eikoku Tomiki Aikido Renmei – Our club’s association
zori – sandals

Numbers
1 ichi
2 ni
3 san
4 shi/ yon
5 go
6 roku
7 shichi / nana
8 hachi
9 ku
10 ju
20 ni-ju
21 ni-ju-ichi
100 hyaku
1000 sen

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